Number of images - 11
Tables and charts - 3
A Generalized Dynamic Conductance Model for High Intensity Discharge Lamps and its Prospective Application to Design Dimmable Electronic Ballast L&E, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2021

Light & Engineering 29 (2)

Volume 29
Date of publication 04/22/2021
Pages 59–71

Purchase PDF - $6

A Generalized Dynamic Conductance Model for High Intensity Discharge Lamps and its Prospective Application to Design Dimmable Electronic Ballast L&E, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2021
Articles authors:
Biswadeep Gupta Bakshi, Biswanath Roy

Biswadeep Gupta Bakshi is Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering Department in Calcutta Institute of Engineering and Management, Kolkata, India and currently pursuing Ph.D. (Engg.) in Jadavpur University, Kolkata. His topic of research is mathematical modelling of discharge lamps and LEDs. He obtained M.E. in Illumination Engineering from Jadavpur University in 2013 after graduating in Electrical Engineering from Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India (currently IIEST) in 2011

Biswanath Roy is associated with the Electrical Engineering Department of Jadavpur University since 2000 as at faculty of Illumination Engineering. He completed Ph.D. (Engg.) in the field of Daylighting in 1999 from the Jadavpur University after having M. Sc. (Tech.) in Optics and Optoelectronics from the Department of Applied Physics in 1993 and B. Sc. (Hons.) in Physics in 1989, both from the University of Calcutta. He is a Life Fellow of Indian Society of Lighting Engineers (ISLE), a Life Member of the IEI – The Institution of Engineers (India)

A generalized model for high intensity discharge (HID) lamp is developed based on the Francis-Damelincourt dynamic conductance model of electric discharge by replacing the model constants A, B, C, D with four experimentally determined coefficient functions of rated lamp power and root mean square supply voltage. Experimental validation of this model is done, which shows a maximum deviation of about 5 %. Moreover, sensitivity analysis for the model coefficients is also performed, results of which conform to the physical behaviour of high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH) lamps. This model is capable to simulate electrical characteristics of HPS and MH lamps of wide range of commercially available rated power (70–400) W fed by a wide range of supply voltage (180–250) V, 50 Hz. As a prospective application, the model is applied to design dimmable low frequency square wave electronic ballast for HID lamps. A design algorithm is proposed for this purpose. Performance analysis of the designed ballast is conducted in Matlab-Simulink environment, which shows fairly good performance of the circuit in terms of dimming accuracy (maximum deviation 2.64 %), lamp power factor (≥ 0.993), and lamp current crest factor (equal to 1.0). The model can also be utilized for designing electronic ballasts of other topologies.
1. Coaton, J.R., Marsden, A.M. (Editors). Lamps and Lighting. 3rd Edition, Wiley Publication, 1996, pp. 292–335.
2. Yan, W., Hui, S.Y.R. An improved high-intensity discharge lamp model including acoustic resonant effect on the lamp arc resistance. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2004. Vol. 19, #6, pp. 1661–1667.
3. Orletti, R., Co, M.A., Simonetti, D.S.L., Vieira, J.L.d.F. HID lamp electronic ballast with reduced component number. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2009. Vol. 56, #3, pp. 718–725.
4. Simpson, R.S. Lighting Control-Technology and Applications. 1st Edition, Focal Press, Italy, 2003, pp. 204–249.
5. Pan, Y., Huang, C., Lin, J., et al. Digital control of low-frequency, small-wattage, high-intensity discharge lamps// Lighting Res. & Technol., 2015. Vol. 48, #7, pp. 832–843.
6. Nsibi, W., Chammam, A., Nehdi, M.N., et al. HID lamps under low frequency square wave operation: Experimental Evaluation of Dimming effects// Lighting Res. & Technol., 2016, Vol. 49, #5, pp. 658–667.
7. Metal halide lamps: Instructions for the use and Application. https //,2019, last accessed on February, 2020.
8. Alonso, J.M. ‘Electronic Ballasts’ in Rashid, M.H. (Editor). Power Electronics Handbook, 4th Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 2018, pp. 685–710.
9. Gupta Bakshi, B., Roy, B. Wattage-independent dynamic conductance model of compact fluorescent lamps: Validation and application in high-frequency operation// Lighting Res. & Technol., 2018, Vol. 50, #7, pp. 1107–1123.
10. Huang, C. M., Liang, T. J., Lin, R. L., Chen, J. F. A Novel Constant Power Control Circuit for HID Electronic Ballast// IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2007, Vol. 22, #3, pp. 854–862.
11. Diaz, F. J., Azcondo, F. J., Branas, C., Casanueva, R., Zane, R. Digitally Controlled Low-Frequency Square-Wave Electronic Ballast with Resonant Ignition and Power Loop// IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2010, 46, #6, pp. 2222–2232.
12. Gupta Bakshi, B., Roy. B. A design methodology for acoustic resonance-free, high-frequency, dimmable electronic ballast for high-pressure sodium-vapour lamps// Lighting Res. and Technol., 2020, Vol. 52, #4, pp. 524–539.
13. Lin, D., Yan, W., Hui, S.Y.R. Modelling the warmup phase of the starting processes of high-intensity discharge lamps. IET Sci., Meas. and Technol., 2011, Vol. 5, #6, pp. 199–205.
14. Lin, D., Yan, W., Zissis, G., Hui, S.Y.R. Methodology for developing a low-pressure discharge lamp model with electron density variation and ambipolar diffusion. IET Sci., Meas. & Technol., 2012, Vol. 6, #4, pp. 229–237.
15. Loo, K.H., Moss, G.J. et al. A dynamic collisional-radiative model of a low-pressure mercury-argon discharge lamp: a physical approach to modeling fluorescent lamps for circuit simulations// IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2004, Vol. 19, #4, pp. 1117–1129.
16. Blanco, C., Anton, J.C., Robles, A. et al. A discharge lamp model based on lamp dynamic conductance// IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2007. V22, #3, pp. 727–734.
17. Blanco, C., Anton, J.C., Robles, A. et al. Comparison between Different Discharge Lamp Models Based on Lamp Dynamic Conductance// IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2011, Vol. 47, #4, pp. 1983–1991.
18. Francis, V.J. Fundamentals of Discharge Tube Circuits. 1st Edition, Methuen and Co. Ltd., London, 1948.
19. Soriano, C., Aubés, M., Damelincourt, J. J., Abdennadheri, T., Stambouli, M. and Annabi, M. Lampes et circuits: du modéle physique au circuit électrique. Applicatión à l’analyse de circuits électriques comportant des lampes á vapeur de mercure á haute pression // Revue Generale de l’Électricite, 1988, #7, pp. 8–19.
20. Zissis, G., Damelincourt, J.J., Bezanahary, T. Modelling discharge lamps for electronic circuit designers: A review of the existing methods// In Proc. IEEE-IAS Annual Conference, Chicago, Illinois, September-October 2001, pp. 1260–1262.
21. Antуn, J.C., Blanco, C., Ferrero, F., Roldan, P., Zissis, G. An equivalent conductance model for high intensity discharge lamps. Conference Record of the 2002 IEEE Industry Applications Conference (37th IAS Annual Meeting), Pittsburgh, PA, October 2002, pp. 1494–1498.
22. Antуn, J.C., Blanco, C., Ferrero, F., Roldan, P., Zissis G. Simulation of the dynamic behaviour of HID lamps based on electrical conductance// In Proc. 28th Annual Conf. of the Ind. Electron. Society (IECON02), Sevilla, Spain, November 2002, pp. 462–467.
23. Gupta Bakshi, B., Dutta, A., Roy, B. Development and Validation of dynamic conductance based wattage independent model for magnetic ballast driven nonretrofit CFLs// Light and Engineering, 2016, Vol. 24, #2, pp. 65–76.
24. Gupta Bakshi, B., Roy, B. Development & simulation of dynamic conductance based high intensity discharge lamp model driven by low frequency square wave electronic ballast. In Proc. 2016 IEEE7th Power India International Conference (PIICON), Bikaner. India, November 2016, pp. 1–6.
25. Lister, G.G., Lawler, J.E., Lapatovich, W.P., Godyak, V.A. The physics of discharge lamps// Rev Modern Physics, 2004. Vol. 76, #2, pp. 541–598.
26. Laskowski, E.L. and Donoghue, J.F. A model of a mercury arc lamp’s terminal V–I behaviour// IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., 1981. VIA‑17, #4, pp. 419–426.
27. Nsibi, W., Chammam, A., Nehdi, M.N., Mrabet, B., Sellami, A., Zissis, G. HID lamps under low frequency square wave operation: Experimental evaluation of dimming effects// Lighting Res. and Technol., 2017. Vol. 49, #5, pp. 658–667.
28. Loo, K.H., Stone, D.A., Tozer, R.C., Devonshire, R. A Dynamic Conductance Model of Fluorescent Lamp for Electronic Ballast Design Simulation. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2005. V20, #5, pp. 1178–1185.
29. Meyer, C., Nienhuis, H. Discharge Lamps. 1st Edition, Philips Technical Library, 1988, pp. 13–282.
30. Surface Fitting Toolbox by MATLAB. https//, last accessed in February, 2020.
31. Waymouth, J.F. Electric Discharge Lamps. 1st Edition, The MIT Press, USA, 1971.
32. Koprnicky, J. Electric conductivity model of discharge lamp. PhD Thesis, Paul Sabatier University, France, 2008, pp. 27–120.
33. von Engel, A. Ionized Gases. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, UK, 1965, pp. 7–15.
34. Pan, Y., Lin, J., Su, S., Shih, T.M. A high-frequency half-bridge driving circuit topology for HID lamps. Lighting Res. & Technol., 2015. Vol. 48, #6, pp. 771–779.
35. Menke, M.F., Silva, M.F.d. et al. Comparative Analysis of Self-Oscillating Electronic Ballast Dimming Methods with Power Factor Correction for Fluorescent Lamps. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2015. Vol. 51, #1, pp. 770–782.
36. Mader, U., Horn, P. A dynamic model for the electrical characteristics of fluorescent lamps. In Proc. 1992 IEEE Ind. Appl. Society Annual Meeting, Houston (TX), October 1992, pp. 1928–1934.
37. Rashid, M.H. Power Electronics-Circuits// Devices and Applications. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2004, pp. 180–281.
38. Mohan, N., Undeland, T.M., Robbins, W.P. Power Electronics- Converters// Applications and Design. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1995, pp. 161–199.
39. Bureau of Indian Standards. SP‑72: National Lighting Code‑2010. New Delhi, India, 2010, pp. 47–70.


Recommended articles