The first question that the author should ask himself is: do I have a result that will be of interest to a specialist in this field? Editors and reviewers are looking for original and innovative studies that complement their field of knowledge. This means that your results should be valid and reliable.
Secondly, ask yourself: is there an audience for the results of my research? The more original and innovative your research is, the more a group of people they will be interested in. Think about whether your study is interested in a local, regional or international audience. Identifying your audience is an important factor in choosing the right journal for submitting your manuscript.
There are several types of research articles:
- Letters and short communications are intended for quick and early reporting of significant or original achievements, not including too much data or details.
- The review articles briefly analyze the latest achievements on a topic without introducing new data. Most often they performed by order of the editorial staff.
- The full articles contain important data, details of their justification, discussions of the connection with the results of other works.
If you do not know what type of article to write, discuss your options with your supervisor or colleagues. In this manual, we offer a guide for writing and publishing a complete article. After you decide to write a full article, follow the recommendations of the magazine you selected.
First, when writing an article, it is important to choose the right journal. A magazine with a suitable area can be the key to reaching your target audience. Requirements and topics of the journal will help you to choose the structure and style of the manuscript of your article.
When searching for a suitable magazine, pay attention to the following points:
- Consider the type of article you want to publish - a full article, a short communication, a review.
- Check the links in your article to give an idea of possible magazines of interest.
- Read the journal's aims and possibilities on the main page of the journal.
- Read the Guidelines for the authors of the journal.
- Check whether the magazine is published only by invitation - some journals accept articles just after they invite the author to send.
- If you need to publish 'open access', see if this type of publication is provided in this journal.
- Submit your manuscript to only one journal.
- In searching for the right journal, it is best to refer to the sci-tech and bibliographic databases Scopus (www.sciencedirect.com), Web of Science (www.webofknowledge.com), Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) (www.elibrary.ru).
An excellent way to find the Elsevier magazine is to use the Journal Finder: journalfinder.elsevier.com. Also, this tool will allow you to make sure that your abstract clearly and briefly explains what's new in your article and why it's essential.
The search engine of these databases, which, of course, you should add a search to Google, allow you to understand where the relevance of your results.
In the analysis of journals, attention should be paid to indicators of influence in this area by citing the results of publications. The average impact of all articles in the journal is often used as an assessment for the publication of a particular article, mainly when the article has not yet accumulated its own quotes. It is essential to consider this metric:
- CiteScore is the average number of citations received for the calendar year for all articles published in this journal over the previous three years is the simplest way to assess the journal.
- Source-Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) is citation relative to the average for this discipline, SNIP> 1 means that the magazine is cited more than on average for discipline.
- SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) is average rating for publication, depending on the SJR citing journal.
- Impact-factor is an average citation for publication.
Many magazines today support the new digital formats that are commonly used in modern research and adds a valuable context to this article; they greatly enrich the presentation of articles on the Internet, which gives readers a deeper understanding. Find out what options are available for the journals in your field of research, this will allow you to evaluate the most effective methods of presenting your ideas.
The title is the main advertisement for your article. An excellent title makes the audience read; a wrongly named article, it may never reach the target readers.
The title of your article should reflect its content clearly, allowing readers to decide whether it is suitable for them. Make the title memorable and reflect the main result of your research. Leave such words as "study", "research", "measurement". Do not use abbreviations and jargon in the title of the article.
Remember also that the results of referencing and indexing your article depend on the accuracy of the name. It is from the name that the keywords for cross-references are first extracted.
Which title of the article – “The effect of heating the albumen and vitellus of the Gallus gallus domesticus contained in calcium carbonate in H2O to 373.15 K” or “Boiling a chicken egg in water” – is better in your opinion? (Elsevier brochure “How to publish in scholarly journals”)For an effective name:
- Define the scientific task of the article.
- Determine the subject of the article.
- Assess the accuracy, uniqueness, concreteness and (if possible) the completeness of the name.
- The shorter the name, the better.
- Analyze the temptation, intrigue, and interest in the title - they make people read more.
- Keyword list.
- Most journals request a list of keywords - important words that, along with the title, effectively describe the research. Keywords are used by the review and indexing services. Choosing the right words can increase the chances of your article finding readers.
Many magazines also request the classification of subjects in the field of science during the online filing process, which helps editors select reviewers.
The abstract is your chance to describe your research in 200 words - so use it wisely! Together, the title and abstract should be able to adequately represent your article, including for use by indexing services. Many authors write the abstract last, so it accurately reflects the content.
The abstract should state the problem or purpose of your research, its method, results, and conclusions. Typically, an annotation does not include links, pictures, or tables. It is worth mentioning each important section of the article, with sufficient detail for readers to decide whether to read or not to read the entire article. However, do not promise more than your article suggests.
When writing an article, you should adhere to the IMRAD – Introduction, Method, Result And Discussion, which corresponds to our actuality, novelty, reliability, and validity. Introduction, often formulated as Motivation, corresponding to our notion of Actuality, should be devoted to the formulation of the problem being solved and is usually outlined in the introduction.
Make a brief introduction, which accurately formulates the scientific task to be solved. A good idea of the scientific problem is given by the physics or mathematics book of problems: it is necessary to accurately determine the conditions of the problem, that it is required to determine and indicate all the assumptions made in the study. The formulation of the problem must unambiguously follow from the state of the matter in contemporary literature. The literature review should provide context and background of the state, but not be a history lesson. He should indicate the problem being investigated, its contextual background and the reasons for the research. Specify the questions to which you are responsible and explain any conclusions of others that you are disputing or promoting. It is brief and logical to bring the reader to your hypotheses, research questions, experimental design or method.
This section should be sufficiently detailed that readers can repeat your research and assess whether these methods justify the conclusions. It is desirable to use the past tense – this is what you have already done - and avoid using the first person.
You need to explain how you explored the formulated problem, determine the procedures that you followed, and how you can more structurally structure this information.
If your methods are new, you will need to explain them in detail. If they were published earlier, indicate the original work, including your corrections, if you made any changes. Identify the equipment and materials that you used, indicating their source. Specify the frequency of observations and what types of data were recorded. Give accurate measurements, indicating their strengths and weaknesses, when necessary. Name any statistical tests by which you can judge the accuracy of your quantitative results.
This section should present your results objectively, justifying them in the text. Here you show your contribution to the totality of scientific knowledge of this field, so be very clear and logical. It is important here not to interpret your results - this is included in the "Discussion and conclusions" section, but to prove their correctness.
You can base the text on tables, figures, and graphs that best represent your results. Emphasize any important conclusions. Tables and figures should be numbered separately. Figures should have a short but full description, a legend that shows how your results were obtained.
Conclusions and discussions
Here you describe the meaning of your results, especially in the context of what was already known about the subject. You can present general and concrete conclusions, but avoid repeating the annotation.
You must link this section to the introduction, referring to the statement of the problem, your questions or hypotheses, and tell how the results relate to your expectations and quoted sources. Do the results support or contradict existing theories? Are there any restrictions? You can also offer further experiments, applications, and extensions.
First of all, the discussion should explain how your studies have advanced science. Your conclusions should be backed up and do not go beyond your results, so avoid unnecessary speculation and bold judgments about influence. It is also an excellent place to offer practical applications of your results and describe what further steps will be in your studies.
To summarize, make sure that:
- Your results directly support your conclusions.
- You use specific expressions and quantitative descriptions – ‘12degrees higher’ instead of ‘a higher temperature’.
- You only discuss what you defined early in the paper – don’t introduce the reader to a whole new vocabulary. If you missed an important term, go back to the introduction and insert it.
- All interpretations and speculations are based on fact, not imagination.
- Express your appreciation briefly by naming those who helped in your studies, was a participant or supplier of free materials. You should also disclose any financial or other conflicts of interest that may affect your results or interpretations.
A new study is based on previously published works, which should always be recognized. Any information that is not "generally known" or created by your experiments should be identified with a quote. The quoted text should be in quotation marks and contain a link.
The format of the links varies, so you should refer to the authors' guide for the magazine that you are submitting to.
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