Number of images - 5
Tables and charts - 6
Abstract:Afterimages are common and frequent perceptual phenomena of everyday life. A typical appearance is the negative УghostФ image of a bright light source when we turn away from it. In the case of significant colour contrast, the afterimage can be coloured. The perceived false imageТs strength decreases gradually and completely disappears in a (10-100) s timescale. The underlying processes have multiple components: a quick adaptation on the retinal level, and a slower adaptation on the neural level. Several studies discuss these mechanisms, but there are still important questions to be answered. In our research, we apply the toplevel, blackbox style approach: instead of focusing on the inner details, we ask human test subjects to test and measure the duration and Уstrength scoreФ of the same lighttransitions. Our goal is to find the main features that affect the duration and subjective strength of the colour afterimages. Specifically, we examine whether the age and gender of the test subjects or the colourimetry parameters affect these parameters. Two set of experiments were performed: colourcolour transitions with 41 and colourgrey transitions with 16 test subjects between 19 and 62. We found that gender has no measurable influence, but age makes a difference in high significance. Both experiment types confirmed that over 40 years the average duration of colour afterimages decreases.
References:1. Mikamo, M., Slomp, M., Raytchev, B., Tamaki, T., Kaneda, K. Perceptually inspired afterimage synthesis // Computers and Graphics, 2013, Vol. 37, pp. 247-255. 2. Horvath, A., Domotor, G. Computational Simulation of Mesopic Vision Based on Camera Recordings // Light and Engineering, 2014, Vol. 22, #1, pp. 61-67. 3. Rinner, O., Gegenfurtner, K.R. Time course of chromatic adaptation for colour appearance and discrimination // Vision Research, 2017, Vol. 40, pp. 1813-1826. 4. Dong, B., Holm, L., Bao, M. Cortical mechanisms for afterimage formation: evidence from interocular grouping // Nature Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol. 7, p. 1-13. 5. Linksz, A. An essay on colour vision and clinical colourvision tests // Grune and Stratton, New York, USA, 1964, 254 p. 6. Hurvich, L.M. Colour Vision // Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, 1981, 326 p. 7. Alpern, M., Maaseidvaag, F., Ohba, N. The kinetics of cone visual pigments in man // Vision Research, 1971, #11, pp. 539-549. 8. Smith, C.V. Densitometric measurement of human cone photopigment kinetics // Vision Res., 1983, Vol. 23, #5, pp. 517-524. 9. Hayhoe, M. M., Benimoff, N. I., Hood, D.C. The time course of multiplicative and subtractive adaptation processes // Vision Research, 1987, #27, pp. 1981-1996. 10. Kefalov, V.J. Rod and cone visual pigments and phototransduction through pharmacological, genetic, and physiological approaches // The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 287, #3, pp. 1635-1641. 11. Stanikunas, R., Kulbokaite, V., Svegzda, A., Vaitkevicius, H., Daugirdiene, A., Kulikowski, J. J., Murray, I.J. Chromatic fading following complete adaptation to unique hues // Journal of Vision, 2020, Vol. 20, #6, 20 p. 12. Zaidi, Q., Ennis, R., Cao, D., Lee, B.B. Neural locus of colour afterimages // Current Biology, 2012, Vol. 22, #3, pp. 220-4. 13. Kingdom, F. A. A., Touma, S., Jennings, B.J. Negative afterimages facilitate the detection of real images // Vision Research, 2020, #170, pp. 25-34. 14. Virsu, V., Laurinen, P. Longlasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation // Vision Research, 1977, Vol. 17, #7, pp. 853-860. 15. Suzuki, T., Okajima, K., Funai, T. Development of senile miosis simulator adapting to variable illumination in colour environments // Optical Review, 2012, #19, pp. 174-181. 16. Elliott, W., Webster, Individual and agerelated variation in chromatic contrast adaptation // Journal of Vision 2012, Vol. 12, #8. 17. Werner, A., Bayer, A., Schwarz, G., Zrenner, E, Paulus, W. Effects of ageing on postreceptoral shortwavelength gain control: Transient tritanopia increases with age // Vision Research, 2010, #50, pp. 1641-1648. 18. Wuerger, Colour constancy across the life span: Evidence for Compensatory Mechanisms // Plos One, 2013. 19. Knoblauch, K., VitalDurand, F., Barbur, J.L. Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span // Vis. Res., 2001, #41, pp. 23-36 20. Sturr, J. F., Church, K. L., Taub, H.A. Early light adaptation in young, middleaged, and older observers // Perception and Psychophysics, 1985, #37, pp. 455-458. 21. Reidenbach, H.D. Determination of the time dependence of coloured afterimages, Proceedings Ophthalmic Technologies XVIII, 2008, Vol. 6844, 68441N. 22. Phuangsuwan, C., Ikeda, M., Mepeam, J. Colour appearance of afterimages compared to the chromatic adaptation of illumination // Colour research and application, 2018. 23. Ikeda, M., Phuangsuwan, C. Strong effect of the simultaneous colour contrast in an afterimage // Colour research and application, 2018. 24. Kline and Nestor Persistence of complementary afterimages as a function of adult age and exposure // Experimental Aging Research, 1977, Vol. 3, #3. 25. Garai, L., Horvath, A. Modelling of human colour perception depending on quick colour shifts on screen // 9th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom), 2018, pp. 223-226. 26. Garai, L., Horvath, A. Simulation of colour afterimages: an approach to computing colour afterimage // Hungarian Journal of Industry and Chemistry, 2019, #47, pp. 17-23. 27. Ekroll, V., Faul, F. Perceptual organization in colour perception: inverting the gamut expansion effect // iPerception, 2013, Vol. 4, pp. 328-332. 28. Schanda, J. Colourimetry: understanding the CIE system // John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2007, 467 p. 29. CIE15 Colourimetry, 2018. 30. Nicholls, A. Confidence limits, error bars and method comparison in molecular modeling. Part 2: comparing methods // J Comput Aided Mol Des 30, 2016, pp. 103-126.